Lecture-notes-lecture-1-11

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Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Lecture Notes, Lecture 1-11 Planet Earth (University of Toronto) Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Lecture Notes, Lecture 1-11 Planet Earth (University of Toronto) Downloaded by Stella Liu ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|9801391
EESA06 Lecture 1 Page 1 EESA06 Lecture 1 Planet Earth 2011 - Earth is 4.5 billion years old - Geography of planet has changed, Plate Tectonic Movements - Rocks can tell us the history of the planet - where water was, where land ones - Glacial erratic - large boulders o Marble - altered limestone - Super-continent - Pangaea Great - all together in one place - Amnesia Continent - Pangaea # 2 - will become a super continent once again - Stratigraphy - putting rocks in their relative age - organizing history o Aka Historical geology - Vector Map - direction of movement and velocity of movement of land masses - Next super continent clustered around southeast china - Ring of Fire - most dangerous place to live, the outline of pacific - Geophysical Equipment - cameras etc. go underwater - Derrick - drilling tower o The Resolution - drill ship can drill 7km underwater Scope of Course - Earth history: Application of 'plate tectonics' to the ancient past to reconstructing past continents/oceans - Paleo-environment reconstruction (ex: climate) and paleo-biology o Paleo = old - Geographical evolution of Canada over 4 billion years - Environmental issues and hazards (earthquakes etc) resources (mineral, water, oil) Lecture 1 and 2: How Planet Earth Works: Plate Tectonics (Chapters 1 and 2 in textbook) Key concepts to read up for the First Two Quizzes: - Formation of planet Earth 4,500 million years before present ' Continental drift ' and Pangaea : 1912 ( Alfred Wegner ) o He proposed that craters on the moon were caused by meteor impact - Sea Floor Spreading : 1960 ( Harold Hess ) o Oceans are widening, pushing the continents around - Magnetic stripes on the ocean floor and wander paths for continents: 1965 ( Fred Vine ) - Mid-ocean ridges and hot spots : 1965 ( Tuzo Wilson ) - Plate Tectonics and Wilson Cycle : 1967 (Tuzo Wilson) o Continental drift (continents are moving around) vs. Plate tectonics (whole of earth surface can be broken up into plates and those plates are moving due to mantel movement) Downloaded by Stella Liu ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|9801391
EESA06 Lecture 1 Page 2 Change in the Earth's Interior - Differentiation - caused by gravity [diagram] Differentiated into a core, mantel and crust Degassing - Minerals break down in volcanoes, created water vapor, accumulated on earth's surface as oceans Plumes - the uneven core, composed of plastic rock that is hotter than surrounding mantel, want to rise Brittle crust - being moved around by plumes in mantle Old crust - sinking back into the mantel Mantel Convection - continuous stirring of mantel - hot rock (plumes) coming up, cold hard rock going down Heat source - is from radioactive decay of uranium - However, over time earth is cooling Diamonds come from the layer immediately around the core - about 2billion years old The United Plates of Planet Earth - Biggest plate - Pacific Plate - Mid-ocean ridge - row of volcanoes running thru the middle of the Atlantic ocean John Tuzo Wilson is the father of Plate Tectonics Type of Crusts: - Oceanic crust 5-8km thick 7km/sec - higher density sink lower into mantel o Made up of basalt rock - Continental Crust <70km thick 6km/sec - low density o Dominantly made out of Granite - Mohorovicic (Moho) - the base of the crust - Asthenosphere - low velocity zone, very weak, plastic Geothermal energy - heat coming from the mantel Downloaded by Stella Liu ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|9801391
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