22. Mon. Apr. 5 Andean complexity an futre of the past

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Today move on to d evelopments in South America... ...and a few thoughts about the present and future of the past Final Test is to be completed through Quizzes on Quercus Wednesday, 11:10 AM - 12:00 noon. 40 multiple-choice questions on material from 2nd half of term, randomly chosen, so students do not receive exactly the same group of questions. Limestone available locally, but Olmecs preferred basalt found in the Tuxtlas mountains some 60 km away, which they could only have obtained with a tremendous expenditure of time and effort. Christopher A. Pool, 2007, Olmec archaeology and early Mesoamerica, Cambridge University Press "A single colossal head would have required labor of more than 1,500 persons over three to four months" (Poole 2007). Basalt boulder may have been dragged, rolled or floated from mountains to lowlands... Christopher A. Pool, 2007, Olmec archaeology and early Mesoamerica, Cambridge University Press
Great Pyramid of Cholula is largest pyramid by volume: 450 X 450 X 55 metres, but the adobe brick and earthen structure did not survive as well as pyramid at Teotihuacan which is 71 meters tall Shares many similarities to the Pyramid of Sun, but built in four distinct phases between 2200 to 1100 years ago Church called Sanctuary of the Virgin of Remedies was built by Spanish conquistadors in 1594, replacing Indigenous temple on top of pyramid Remains of Great Plaza west of Great Pyramid Motocross track has since been removed
There are numerous Andean states and confederacies by 2200 years ago Caral, Chavin de Huantar Batan Grande, Chan Chan, Nasca, Wari, Tiwanaku Inka subsumes many into its empire, ruled from Machu Pichu and Cuzco Moundbuilding in central and northern Peru began about 5000 years ago in Cotton Preceramic period Caral has 'pyramid mounds' and 'temples' that are monumental in scale Chavin de Huantar built between 2900 - 2500 years ago shows importance of religious beliefs shared throughout entire region Restricted access to interior of temple argued to have created moving experiences perhaps heightened by psycho-active plants. Walls of temple have a fanged anthropomorphic jaguar guarding entrance
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