Earth Science - Chapter 9 Notes

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Chapter 9 - Streams and Groundwater Abrasion - when rocks and sediments rub against each other 240 Alluvial fans - aprons of gravels getting deposited at the mouths of canyons 242 Aquiclude - a rock or substance that does not have good permeability 252 Aquifer - far below the water table 251 Artesian spring - when water flows out of the ground under natural pressure 252 Artesian well - when water flows out of a well under natural pressure 252 Base level - when rivedrs enter into the ocean or a lake, they can no longer flow downhill 243 Bed load - load that is transported along the bottom of the stream 241 Braided stream - crisscrossing channels often found in mountain valleys where high gradient rivers deliver things 248 Capillary fringe - just above the water table 250 Cavitation - when water flows rapidly across a depression and leaves a vacuum bubble in the hold and it implodes. 240 Channel deposits - deposits in the bottom of a stream, always form as a result of a drop in competence 242 Column - a stalactite and stalagmite join to form a column 258 Competence - the ability of a stream to carry its load 241 Cone of ascension - when too much pumping occurs and sal-water is drawn upwards into the well, causing the well to produce saltwater instead of freshwater 256 Cone of depression - when a well is pumped, the level of the water table around the well lowers. 255 Cut bank - meandering rivers actively erode on the outsides of the meander bends 247 Delta - 243 Disappearing stream - streams that "disappear" for one reason or another 248 Dissolved load - various chemicals, salts, and pollutants that are dissolved in the water 241 Distributaries - the large stream splits into smaller river channels 243 Entrenched meander - 248 Erosion - the removal of the rock from its original location (in weathering) 240 Floodplain - 242 Flowstone - the walls of the cave can be coated with flowstone 258 Fumaroles - cracks, vents, or fissures where volcanic gasses escape into the atmosphere Geyser - 259 Groundwater - water found below the surface of the earth 239 Helictite - most cave formations are vertical, but if there is a draft in the cave, some cave formations seem to almost defy gravity. 258 Hot springs - 259 Hydraulic action - erosion by the sheer force of moving water 240 Hydrologic cycle - what happens in the water cycle 239 Karst topography - landscapes that are characterized by caves, sink holes and disappearing streams 259 Load - weathered and eroded materials transported by streams 241 Meander scar - over time, the oxbow lake can fill with debris 248 Meandering stream - streams that snake back and forth across a generally flat valley bottom, making giant S curves. 247
Misfit stream - weird steams like little ones in a big valley 249 Mud pots - 259 Natural levees - 242 Oxbow lake - the old meander can still contain water and form a horseshoe-shaped lake 248 Perched water table - a water table that rests higher than the main water table 252 Permeability - the ability of water to flow through the aquifer 251 Point bar - deposits on the shallow inside portion of a meander bend 248 Porosity - the amount of empty space in an aquifer 251 River terrace - 249 Saltation - as the sand grain hits, it usually causes several other sand grains to jump up into the current 241 Sinkhole - holes at the surface of the earth 259 Soda straw - when stalactites are hollow inside 258 Solution - dissolving the rock 240 Speleothem Spring - places where water naturally flows out of the earth, either continually or intermittently 252 Spring deposit - made when minerals such as calcium carbonate are deposited as a spring leaks out of a rock 252 Stalactite - icicle-shaped rocks hanging from the ceiling of the cave 258 Stalagmite - a cone-shaped deposit can grow from the floor of a cave 258 Suspended load - load carried in the water column 241 Thermal features - hot springs, mud pots, fumaroles, geysers 259 Travertine - if the spring deposit is more solid and lacks holes, it's a travertine 252 Tributaries - smaller tributaries come together to make the larger river 243 Tufa - if spring deposits are full of small holes, the carbonate rock is called tufa 252 Unsaturated zone - water seeps through cavities that are full of air 250 Water table - the water level you see in a well 250 Zone of aeration - 250
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