OGET Study Guide 174 study review Metacognition - "Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task Context clues - A vocabulary strategy in which the reader looks at the words around an unfamiliar word to find clues to its meaning. Semantics - Meaning of words and sentences syntatic - The order of words in a sentence. (e.g. noun, verb) Literal Comprehension - The lowest level of understanding. It involves reading the lines and understanding exactly what is on the page. Students can repeat or paraphrase what they have read. Critical Comprehension - One of the highest levels of understanding. Requires readers to think beyond the printed page. Ex. indicating whether text is true or false, distinguishing between fact and opinion, detecting propaganda, judging whether the author is qualified to write the text, recognizing bias and fallacies, identifying stereotypes, making assumptions. Word Analysis - The process of identifying written words; it involves the use of phonics, sight words, and context clues. Summarization - distilling and condensing a text into its main idea and key details by identifying story elements Question Generation - constantly ask questions about comprehension, vocabulary, personal knowledge or experiences, predictions Textual Marking - where students interact with the text as they read to help them focus on the importance of small things and provice a reference point for review text structure - the author's method of organizing text. being able to follow the author's ideas and relationships among ideas. Children to develop literacy skills - phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Theme (narrative) - central idea of a work. A theme must be universal and apply to everyone, not just the characters in a story.
topic sentence - A sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph in which it occurs. Definition Paragraph - Develop a formal definition by means of other patterns-for instance, defining (happiness) by telling a story (narration) or defining a diesel engine by telling how it works (process). definition by synonym - defines something by using words that closely mean the same thing Definition by Class - Most commonly used in exams, papers, and reports, the class definition first puts the term in a larger category or class, and then describes the distinguishing characteristics or details of the term that differentiate it from other members of the class definition by negation - the term is defined by stating what it is not and then saying what it is illustrative - Explains a general statement through the use of specific examples Narrative - Tells a story. Represents chronological order. Descriptive - Appeals to the five senses to describe a person, place, or thing so that the readers can see the subject in their imaginations. process - How-to that give step-by-step directions on how to do something and the explanation paper that tells how an event occurred or how something works. Causes - reasons for actions or events Effects - results of a cause or causes Facts - something that actually exists and can be proven true Opinions - a view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge. inductive reasoning - A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations. deductive reasoning - reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.) Smilie - A comparison using "like" or "as" (e.g. as pretty as a picture) Metaphor - A comparison without using like or as (e.g. My soul is a dark forest.)
Personification - the giving of human qualities to an animal, object, or idea (e.g. The hurricane howled its frightful rage.) Synecdoche - A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (E.g. "boots on the ground" could be used to describe soldiers in a field.) Metonymy - is the use of one term that is closely associated with another to mean the other. (E.g. Referring to the "crown" as a way of referring to monarchy) Parallelism - similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses Euphemism - An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant (e.g. "expired" instead of "dead") Hyperbole - exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally. Climax - Most exciting moment of the story; turning point Style - the choices a writer makes; the combination of distinctive features of a literary work Tone - Attitude a writer takes toward the audience, a subject, or a character point of view - the perspective from which a story is told Alliteration - Repetition of initial consonant sounds (e.g. chirp chip said the chickadee) Assonance - Repetition of vowel sounds (e.g. the quiet bride cried) Onomatopoeia - A word that imitates the sound it represents. (e.g. hiss, buzz, rattle or pop) Bathos - insincere or overdone sentimentality Oxymoron - A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase. (new classic) Irony - A contrast between expectation and reality malapropism - a word humorously misused ( the movie was a cliff dweller instead of a cliffhanger) ad hominem - a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute