Exam 3

Exam 3 Ch. 5 Communication and Culture o Communication and culture interrelate Communication : the process by which people transfer information, ideas, attributes, and feelings to each other. o Culturally specific o Symbols and miscommunication Symbol : anything that represents something else. o Intercultural communication Intercultural communication: is a process in which messages created in one culture must be processed and interpreted in another culture. o Communication Styles and Gender o Linguistic diversity o Linguicism Linguicism : discrimination based on language. Speaking a different language from you. Electronic Communication o Impact of o Email privacy o Misunderstandings Misunderstanding is when we attached different meaning to the same symbol. Areas of Development: o Examining Ourselves and Our World Communication style Language Material culture What we can create, see, touch, or feel o Expanding Our Knowledge of Others and Their Worlds What do you assume when people... Converse with their faces only a few inches apart? Take a long time to answer a question? Do not look at you when you talk to them? Talk informally for a period of time before "getting down to business"? Answer a question with "yes"? Verbally challenge each other? o Stepping Outside of Ourselves Stepping outside of ourselves: ability to process and understand another person's point of view. o Gauging the Level of the Playing Field Relationship between speaker and receiver influences communication Statuses Power : the difference in power is the obstacles
Obstacles o Checking Up on Ourselves Entire audience? Situation? Options available? Specific purpose? Feedback? Content, style Offensive language? What might I do differently? Options available: Written communication, verbal commutation, visual communication o Following Through Communication styles and skills - daily challenges Developing Expanding Refining Constant practice of diversity Barriers to Effective Communication o Cultural biases Dialects Accents o Lack of awareness of cultural differences o Language differences o Ethnocentrism o Inactive listening Microaggressions o Microaggressions: brief , often subtle and unintentional biases that people communicate by virtue of what they do, and the environment they create. COMMUNICATING INCLUSIVELY o Address people the way they want to be addressed. o Keep an open mind. Different lenses o Listen actively o Check for understanding. o Research. o Think before you say it. (e.g. ethnic jokes)*** o Avoid slang.*** o Use different styles of communication. o Do not assume you can/should ignore differences.*** o "The ability to connect and form relationships with people from all walks of life" is an absolutely essential part of any skillset today.
o Social network : a web of connections or ties that link people directly and indirectly to other people o Social networking : the process by which we make connections with others Ch. 6 What is Social Networking? o A process o Nodes and ties describes relationships, used by social network theory Nodes are individuals (people) who share a connection in a network Ties are the connection (lines) themselves o Online and face-to-face o Social network : a web of connections or ties that link people directly and indirectly to other people o Social networking : the process by which we make connections with others Multiplex ties : having many relations The Social Context of Networking o Strong and Weak Ties Strong ties : relationships close and frequently maintained, less diverse Weak ties : relationships that are distant and less intimate, more diverse o Strength of weak ties (Granovetter) : weak ties are more helpful in providing crucial resources. o Degree and degrees of separation Degree : the number of ties we have with other individuals or a collectivity Degree of separation : the measure of social distance o Trust Trilogy of trust o Social context : the environment of people, relationships, and cultures that surround us. Changing Dynamics of Social Networking o Digital Natives : younger people born or raised during the age of digital technologies. o Digital immigrants : people not born into digital world but learn later in life. Diversity Consciousness and Online Social Networking o Skills Assuming Diversity Seeking Diversity Leveraging Diversity Expanding the Diversity of Online Social Networks o Maximizing Social Capital Social capital : actual and potential interpersonal resources embedded in our social networks Three types of resources o Psychological, social, economic o Bridging and Bonding
Bridging : ties with people dissimilar to us. Bonding : ties with people similar to us. o Education and Diverse Networks People with more education has more diverse networks. Key Diversity Issues in Online Social Networking o Identity Tourism : the process of adopting someone else's identity online Passing : pretending to be members if another group. o Digital Divides Age Gender Race/ethnicity Social class Disability o Global Digital Divides Online Microaggressions o Online Microaggressions : the everyday verbal, nonverbal, snubs, or insults, whether intentional or not intentional, which communicate hostile derogatory, or negative messages. o Microinsults, micro assaults, and microinvalidations Microinsults : a form of microaggressions that are backhanded and demeaning Micro assaults : most explicitly violent obvious, deliberate usually aren't subtle supported by peers Microinvalidations : message that exclude or deny people's feelings, perspectives, or realities o Cyberbullying : use of internet, cell phones, or other electronic devices to hurt, embarrass or harass someone anonymously o Default whiteness o Impact of online microaggressions o Coping strategies: Interrupt and respond Collect thoughts and gain control Seek social and emotional support Reflect on what we think took place without trying to fix or blame o Intent vs. Impact Benefits of Diverse Social Networks o Cross-cultural Collaboration o Diversity Discussions o The Wisdom of Crowds o Resource Sharing o Collective Action and Social Change o Personal Empowerment
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