178 Chapters oral citations Provelng youe tenars win essentel foeTalon obout o 5006 yu use o0 apaech, source citations e eferenoes 0 your sourcas wihna fomalosine. The Introduction, Conclusion, Transitions, and Presentation Aids As discussed earlier in this chapter, your introduction, conclusion, and vital transi- tions should help you frame a well-structured presentation. Because all three of these components are so important ko settng impressions, orienting your listeners, and encouraging the overall luidity of your presentation, many instructors prefer to have you write them out verbatim, as llustrated in our sample formal outline at the end of this chapter. That doesn't mean you have to present them word-for-word as written, but they provide a firm sense of how you plan to open and close your speech and. move from one main point 1o the next, making for a smoother, more comfortable pre- sentation. Should your instructor request that you outline the introduction and con- clusion, do ot include them as the first and last main points along with the body of your presentation. Mark them off as distinct sections complete with separate numerals 'and letters for indentation. That way the main points of your body will be numbered as 111 and L, 5o they will be easier to remenber, Your formal outline should also include references to when you plan to display and use presentation aids. While you could simply write "show chart" or "display photo- graph" at the end of the sentence where you plan (0 use them on your formal outline, that would pass up the opportunily to determine how you will blend your aids into your speech. Think of how you can present them for maximum effect: "According to the National Sience Foundation, s this chart shows..." or "Women in Afghanistan whoate ot covered head to toe in burgas (shorw photograph) are subject o harsh punishment" Oral Citations and Source Citations Your formal outline should include direct references to the sources you willcite arally during your presentation. Because your audience cannot look at the list of works you have consulted, these oral citations assure them that you have conducted sufficient research to speak from responsible knowledge. Oral citations of respected sources are especially important for substantiating claims that are complicated, time-sensitive, or controvrsial. "Speaker's Notes: Guidelines for Oral Documentation" will help you construct effective oral citations. In addition to oral citations, you should include abbreviated source citations within your formal outlne for each piece of supporting information you use. Source citations help o demonstrate the thoroughness of your research as integrated into your presentation and should be included in parentheses at the end of the points or Subpoints to which they apply. In most cases, the author's last name or an abbrevi- ated title in ftalics or quotation marks plus a page number will suffice—for example, (Branch, p. 14) or (Purting the Weters, p. 52). List the author's last name with an abbreviated titleif you are citing more than one work by the same author. If the author s a group or onganization, list ts name in abbreviated form. To develap efective rat citations,follow these guidelines: 1. Identity the publicaion in which the material appears. 4. Selectciect quoations that are bief and that wil 2. idontiy the time framo of the publcaton (usually have an impact. the year s suffiient uniess the material s 5. Avoid presenting every detail of the writen ctation. time-sansive). 6. Provide more extensive oral citations or conroversial 3. Offr highightod credertials for the experts you ct. and time-sensiive material
Structunng and Outining Your Speach 179 Works Cited or Consulted Finally, most instructors will ask yous to submit a bibliography or st of works eited works cited along with your formal outlne. A works cited it should include only those sources Ao 1 5416 montonod 0 your of information that you actualy refer to in your presentation. Some instuctors may %N also sk for a list of works consulted, which includes all of the works you read and yworks consulted found informative, even those you did not actually clte or use i your presentation. Ais: o sl re work i s Sl other instructors may ask you o anotate your lstof works cited o consuled by FepaR:en or s prseraion including a one- to three-sentence description addressing the nature or value of the ideas and information each ntry offrs. In any case, your list of referenced sources is crucal 10 documenting your re- search and demonstrating your acquisitin of responsible knowledge in support of your claims. Do not pad you st with soutces you found online o i the library but id ot actually consult, whichisa form of academic dishonesty that instructors fake very seriously. Provide full and proper citations s0 that you can refer curious listeners or your instructor o the exact sources of nformation. In order o lst your refetences i proper form, reer to the sample formats provided in Chapter 7 that illusteate the Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA) styles. Your instructor may: indicate a preference between these two stylos. Longer, more developed primers on both syles are easy o find online. We highly recommend the tutorial posted by the Purdue University's Online Weitng Lab (OWL). Formal Outlines: A Few Precautions Forital ufines ve (i great advantage. They fnpiode discipline on the prpias tion process that can hep you develop a substantve speech that ises o the high sandards of responsible knowledge, They also have one great disadvantage: If used uring your presentaion,they can suck th lfe right cut o speech. You can end up i e thes rathesthar speaking fn frah, diect, nd exfemaporaneots way 1o the lsteners in front of you. The only time you should read durin your speech is when you are quoting the words of someoe else because the exact wording i dra- ! i, mprsiv, and v, Refer 1 Chaptes 3 and 12 on dveloing hey-wond | DeVeloping a cutlng for st witle raclicin; and presenting your aituslprésehiatcs Formal Outline We close on a pracicalif Gbvious paints f your insructor requires you fosubmit | What do you find fobe a formal outline and lst of references as part of a formal spesking assignment, re- | the mst dificul part member hatt will b one ofth fe tangibe s he r she will havefor exalusting. | apout developing a fo- e eork yovs did prior by aking yous presentation. 1 you turoin sloppy Fough draft with incoreect formattng and handwriting scribbled in the margins, then you will obviously not make a good impresion. Formal outlnes should be computer- generated; clan; and froe of misspelings, grammatica errors, an typos. Ask your instructor if you can model your formal outline on the sample we provide at the end i the presentation tself? of this chapte. 'mal outline? What does that suggest about the challenges you may face Final Reflections: Deep Roots of Structuring and Outlining the various design options we have discussed are templates we use to understand the waorld and to grasp its meaning for our lives. We want to know how things cometo be, so we seck causes and effects, We often divide subjects into categories that reflect ou interests; for example, when we are considering proposal, we may con- sideritinterms of its cost, enefis, and likelood of success. This becomes one of the most popular forms of categorical order. Chronological order reflects our arientation in time,
180 Chapters and sequential design speaks o our need to know step-by-step processes. Spatial order reflects how swe situate ourselves within the world. For example, an environmentalist may look at mountains in terms of plant and animal life at different altitudes, while mine awners might see the same mountains in lerms of the seams of coal they contain The persistence of the prablem-solution pattern speaks to the continual appearance of diffcuties that must be dealt with if we are to live successfully. We are also creatures who need 1o see a pattern completed once it has begun. A discussion of causes does not satisfy us when we can't see the effects. If you discuss a problem, we want to see a solution; likewise; any discussion of solutions seems Senseless if we aren't given a clear understanding of the problem. In short, we want closure to satsfy the patters of expectation we bring o our experience Being a successful speaker calls for an abilit o arrange what you have learned into intelligent patterns of knowledge that listeners will find easy o access and hard to forget. You want to be able to build a structure of reasons so compelling that the conclusion will seem iresistible o fair-minded listeners. As you find your voice, you will come to place great value on the disciplines of structuring and outlning.
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