Improving the properties of Ashphalt Concrete Mixtures using Iron Filling Wastes

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Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence . Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd Second International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering-Iraq IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 856 (2021) 012009 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/856/1/012009 1 Improving the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Iron Filling Wastes Aliaa F. Al.Ani 1, a * and Ban F. Salman 1,b 1 Civil Engineering Department, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. a [email protected] , b [email protected] *Corresponding author Abstract . The iron filling powder is a byproduct that can be obtained during steel manufacturing. Using iron filling powder in road paving can have many environmental advantages, such as keeping a clean environment and saving natural construction materials. The paper evaluates the impact of utilizing iron filling powder on indirect tensile strength and Marshall Stiffness of hot mix asphalt. Four values of hot mix asphalt with various iron filling contents, namely, 0, 30, 60, and 90% by weight of total mix, were deliberated. The testing showed an improvement in different Marshall Properties and indirect tensile strength of hot mix asphalt modified with iron filling. As the iron filling percent excesses, Marshall Stability and indirect tensile strength of the studied blends excesses. This is an indication of mixtures performance improvement and the fact that iron filling powder can be utilized in asphalt paving for ecological features. The research was set up to examine the approval of using iron filling to improve the designing attributes of domestic-made bitumen concrete (A.C.) blends. The examination began by estimating the substance and physical qualities of the iron filling. From that point 0, 30, 60, and 90% of the limestone total in the A.C. blends were snubbed by iron filling. The advancement made the iron exhibition a decision in roundabout elasticity, flexible modulus, rutting obstruction, and weariness life. It was discovered that subbing 90% of the coarse limestone total by iron filling upgraded the mechanistic qualities of A.C. blends. Keywords: Iron filling aggregate; asphalt concrete; indirect tensile strength; rutting. 1. Introduction Main characteristics that asphalt paving mixes might have: durability, stability, flexibility, and skid resistance (in surface layers) [1] proper substances (aggregate, bitumen, and additives) and suitable mixture designing step might be utilized to implement perfect characteristics. Trash employment is an attractive substitutional to dump in that dump expense, and possible pollutant troubles are decreased or even eradicated along with the attainment of source maintenance. However, the employment strategy should be combined with environmental and energy considerations to utilize existing substances most effectively. Steel slag, the byproduct of steel and iron manufacturing processes, started to be used in civil engineering projects within the past 12 years [2]. In Iraq, pavements are constructed to superior international standards, for instance, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials [3], bitumen Institute, and the American Society for Testing and Materials [4][5]. And after a shortened interval of serving, several of these pavements are appearance markers of primary distress due to the serve ecological loading and traffic
Second International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering-Iraq IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 856 (2021) 012009 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/856/1/012009 2 conditions. Another element in the soon stress is the utilize of peripheral quality limestone aggregate. Iron filling, a by-produce of slug industrialization, is generated through the split of molted iron filling from imperfections in slug-making ovens. Iron filling develops as a melted fluid and is contained in a compound melting of oxides and silicates that consolidate on refrigeration. The iron filling is a converted substance that can be beneficial in the structural factory. For instance, it evaluates that over 7.5×106 t of iron filling is utilized every annual in the U.S. Collins and Ciesielski [6] fundamentally as a granulate pavement foundation or as an aggregate in structural implementations. The iron filling aggregate has adequately been utilized in the Middle East beneath warm climate situations [7]. Some iron filling has altitude proportions of free limestone and magnesium oxides that have not interacted to the silicate constructions and can hydrate and extend in moist ecological [8]; the proper iron filling can be employed as an alteration for nature aggregate in a diversity of civil engineering implementations. It can be utilized in concrete mixtures, bitumen concrete mixtures (A.C), and soil stability. The iron filling can be treading into fine or coarse aggregate substance for use in intense-gradient and open- gradient hot-mixture A.C pavement and a cool mixture or roof curing implementations [9-12]. Suitable treatment of iron filling and specific goodness-dominance steps is very substantial in adopting iron filling for asphalt paving mixtures. The distention possibility of iron filling is of individual significance due to the loose lime or magnesia in the iron that, if neglected, might consequence in pavement fracturing [9]. The utilize of iron filling in road mixtures might be bounded to the alternative of the coarse or fine aggregate portion. Nevertheless, both, for hot-mixture asphalt including (100%) iron filling is oversensitive to altitude ratio in air voids and bulking trouble due to corner form of iron filling. Blends with an altitude ratio of air voids (e.g., 100% iron filling blends) demand altitude asphalt cement contents through production and will be oversensitive to glittering because of in-servicing traffic compaction. Asphalt mixtures consisting of iron filling may be determined utilizing standard lab steps; the Marshall mix [13] and Superpave mixture [14]. Mixtures consisting of iron filling and traditional aggregate are generally designed volumetrically due to the considerable variance in aggregate bulk relative densities. The demands of ASTM specifications D5106 and D4792 [4] outline concluded features of iron filling for utilizing in hot-mixture bitumen. Japan and Germany have inclusive specifications for the treatment of iron filling. Moreover, senility demands and aggregate expansion testing comprise the hot-mixture asphalt amplification experience consisting of iron filling [8]. Concerning the typical characteristics of asphalt mixes like stability, water sensibility, resilient modulus, or fatigue life, the features are comparatively unaffected and in specific situations amended by the integration of EAFS described by [15]. So, to excess the sensitivity of bituminous mixes to microwave eradiation, specific additives have been utilized. For instance, [16] used carbonyl iron powder. Helmand and Saini [17] The compression and splitting tensile strength of concrete made with 100% iron filings is about 26% higher than the concrete made with 100% natural sand. The research's essential goal is to find methods and means of efficiently employing trash substances emanating as by production from slug manufacture by the slug-factory companies in Iraq. To investigation the goal, we concerted to (i) studying the chemical and physical characteristics of produced iron filling to locate them properly for utilizing in asphalt cement mixtures; (ii) attend asphalt cement blends that consisted of iron filling and estimate their characteristics and improve the tensile strength, rutting resistance, resilient modulus, fatigue life of the blends. 2. Materials In this research , the materials utilized are bitumen cement, aggregate, and limestone filler. The properties of materials were evaluated employing habit kind of experiments, and the gained results were contrasted at the [18] specification requests. In Iraq, all the substances utilized are natively obtainable and vastly appointed for the road structure. 2.1 Asphalt cement Asphalt cement was used with (40-50) penetration grade gained from Al-Durra's refinery in Baghdad city. The physical characteristics of asphalt are shown in Table 1.
Second International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering-Iraq IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 856 (2021) 012009 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/856/1/012009 3 Table 1. Physical characteristics of asphalt cement binder. Test Test condition ASTM Designation Asphalt Binder SCRB specification Penetration 100 gm, 25 o C, 5 sec., 0.1 mm D5 45 40-50 Specific Gravity 25 o C/25 o C D70 1.02 Ductility 25 o C, 5 cm/min. D113 >100 >100 Flash Point (COC) o C ---- D92 236 232 min Softening Point (4±1) o C/min. D36 47 2.2 Aggregate The aggregate utilized in this research is squashed quartz from the quarry of Al-Nibaie that is boundlessly used for black-top blends in the city of Baghdad. The total (coarse and fine) utilize in the test were sieved and integrated in the reasonable ratio to accumulate the surface course degree type III, and as requested by [18] determination, the chose degree with determination ends are shown in Figure 1. The physical features of total utilized appear in Table 2. Figure 1. Aggregate gradation curve. Table 2. Physical features of aggregates. No. Laboratory Test ASTM Designation Test Results SCRB Specification Coarse aggregate 1 Apparent specific gravity C-127 2.678 - 2 Bulk specific gravity C-127 2.61 - 3 Water absorption, % C-127 0.21 - 4 Percent wear (Los Angeles abrasion), % C-131 17.5 30 Max. Fine aggregate 1 Apparent specific gravity C-128 2.683 - 2 Bulk specific gravity C-128 2.621 - 3 Water absorption, % C-128 0.4 - 2.3 Mineral filler Mineral filler crossing sieve No.200 (0.075 mm) is a non-plastic material. The filler employed is limestone powder got from the bituminous concrete mix manufacturer of Mayoralty Baghdad of lime in manufacturer from Karbala Governorate. Physical features of filler are shown in Table 3. 3/4 11/2 3/8 No.8 No.50 No.200 No.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 10 100 1000 10000 % Passing Sieve Size Selected Gradation Specification Limits
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