Qianhui Jiang OPM 3000 16536-LEC Prof. Alex Gorod 1. Create a flowchart of the passenger arriving at an airport for departure process. How might this process be improved to avoid delays? To enhance the airport experience and mitigate delays, airlines should proactively communicate mask-wearing requirements and check-in procedures through email, SMS, and mobile apps while promoting the use of mobile boarding passes and organized document preparation. Investing in advanced security technology, such as automated scanners, can expedite threat detection and minimize manual checks, and data analytics should guide staff allocation during peak hours to accelerate security processes. Security staff should receive professional training that balances security and passenger convenience. The introduction of automated baggage drop-off kiosks and luggage tracking using RFID or barcodes can reduce lines and physical contact. Multilingual, pictogram- based signage and real-time information boards help guide passengers, while contactless authentication methods and electronic boarding pass readers enhance efficiency and reduce boarding errors. Clear communication regarding carry-on restrictions, along with size-check stations, should be provided at check-in. Lastly, additional staff during busy times can offer passenger guidance and support, ensuring a smoother, well-informed, and efficient airport experience.
Qianhui Jiang OPM 3000 16536-LEC Prof. Alex Gorod 2. Create a cause-and-effect diagram for this case Bed Bath & Beyond's decision to file for bankruptcy can be attributed to several significant factors. Firstly, the company struggled to adapt to the changing retail landscape, particularly the rapid growth of online shopping, which left it at a disadvantage compared to competitors like Amazon, Target, and Walmart. As these competitors invested heavily in enhancing their online shopping experiences, Bed Bath & Beyond's outdated digital capabilities led to a decline in sales and market share. Secondly, its aggressive expansion strategy through various acquisitions, including Harmon Stores, Christmas Tree Shops, Buy Buy Baby, and Cost Plus World Market, while diversifying its offerings, diverted the company's focus away from critical investments in its core business, notably e-commerce. This misallocation of resources hindered the company's ability to compete effectively in the evolving retail environment. Additionally, accumulating significant debt in 2014 to buy back stock strained the company's finances, making the debt load unsustainable over time. Lastly, the decision to scale back on the iconic coupons, which had long been a major customer draw, and to shift towards promoting private label brands over recognized national brands impacted customer loyalty and store appeal. These factors, combined, contributed to declining sales, a loss of customer trust, and ultimately, the company's choice to seek bankruptcy protection as a means to address these challenges and restructure its operations. 3. Determine the upper and lower control limits for an X-Bar (average) chart and R (range) chart with a sample size of four, we'll need to calculate the average and range for each set of samples for the maids. Control Limits for X-Bar Chart and R-Chart: Calculate the X-Bar and R values for each maid's samples: Calculate X-Bar (Average) for each maid: X-Bar (Alex) = (122 + 90 + 152) / 3 = 121.33 X-Bar (Marie) = (130 + 111 + 140) / 3 = 127.00 X-Bar (Linda) = (200 + 180 + 175) / 3 = 185.00 X-Bar (Ann) = (163 + 155 + 141) / 3 = 153.00
Qianhui Jiang OPM 3000 16536-LEC Prof. Alex Gorod Calculate the Range (R) for each maid: R (Alex) = Max(Sample) - Min(Sample) = 152 - 90 = 62 R (Marie) = 140 - 111 = 29 R (Linda) = 200 - 175 = 25 R (Ann) = 163 - 141 = 22 Now, calculate the average range (R-Bar): R-Bar = (62 + 29 + 25 + 22) / 4 = 34.50 Calculate the control limits for the X-Bar and R-Charts using the A2 and D3/D4 constants for a sample size of 4 from the control chart constants table: A2 = 0.729 D3 = 0 D4 = 2.059 Control Limits for X-Bar Chart: Upper Control Limit (UCL_X) = X-Bar + A2 * R-Bar Lower Control Limit (LCL_X) = X-Bar - A2 * R-Bar UCL_X = 153.00 + 0.729 * 34.50 ≈ 177.62 LCL_X = 153.00 - 0.729 * 34.50 ≈ 128.38 Control Limits for R-Chart: Upper Control Limit (UCL_R) = R-Bar * D4 Lower Control Limit (LCL_R) = R-Bar * D3 UCL_R = 34.50 * 2.059 ≈ 71.22 LCL_R = 34.50 * 0 ≈ 0 (ii) To determine if corrective action is needed, we need to compare the new sample data to the control limits: New Sample: 249, 239, 188, and 109 Calculate the X-Bar and R for this sample: X-Bar (New Sample) = (249 + 239 + 188 + 109) / 4 = 196.25 R (New Sample) = Max (249, 239, 188, 109) - Min (249, 239, 188, 109) = 140 Now, check if the X-Bar and R values fall within the control limits: X-Bar (196.25) is within the control limits of 128.38 (LCL_X) and 177.62 (UCL_X). R (140) is within the control limits of 0 (LCL_R) and 71.22 (UCL_R). Since both X-Bar and R values fall within their respective control limits, corrective action is not needed. The process is considered in control.
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