economic development there (In India or China) enter upon that path of rationalization" (Saran,
1963). He further explains how India has lagged back in the race to progress technological
advancements due to the principles of Hinduism. Hinduism promotes an understanding that
individuals need to be self-sustained and not depend on others for success. This ideology has
hindered India's ability to work with other Western countries who had moved from medievalism
to modernism. He further explains how the British rule have etched an idea that Western
religions are much better than Hinduism which made many Indian citizens to change religion
which in turn caused major riots in India. This added more fuel to the already failing economic
ship called India.
The second article from Helble explains the effects of Hinduism in trade and business. He
starts the article by explaining the significance of Hinduism and how it started in the 1st
millennium BC. Helble says in the article that Hinduism "proclaims four legitimate aims of life:
Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. These translated roughly into righteousness, economic well-
being, pleasure, and salvation" (Helble, 2006). He clarifies this point by showing how Hindu
principles are closely tied to economy and how Hinduism welcomes economic development, but
individuals have misinterpreted this information. He later explains how Hinduism have promoted
caste systems and how castle systems have majorly hindered how business is done within India.
The caste system is a system of social stratification in which social position is determined by the
family into which a person is born and change in that position is usually not possible during an
individual's lifetime (Hill, 2022). Due to this fact Helble explains that people in higher caste
don't do businesses with people in lower caste which affected India's economy.
The third article by economist Agarwal explains how gender identity in Hinduism has
affected businesses and professionals. In this article, Agarwal sheds light on how social norms