Anthropology notes 52

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ANTH 104
Sep 28, 2023
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Input into notebook later Neandertals - Found in europe and asia 150,000-27000 yrs ago Physical features: - 1600 cc brain for a male; bigger than modern people (1400 cc); most likely related to cold climate - bigger organs retain more heat - Long and low skull (occipital bun - skull sticks out at rear) - Big nose/ bulging midface - No chin (only modern humans have chins) - Still have bigger teeth than modern humans + shovel-shaped incisors + big pulp in teeth (w/ fusing of the root; called taurodont teeth) - small cheek teeth, large front teeth - Double-arched brow ridges - Shorter with more body mass/ more muscle; same skeleton (cold-adapted) Brains are expensive tissue - need lots of high quality nutrients (esp. fats) + a lot of the body's energy - costly adaptation, so there must be an advantage (most likely language adaptation) 1856 - neander valley, germany Middle paleolithic (Middle Stone Age): 200k yrs ago. Mousterian tools/ flake tools (Neandertall and Archaic H. sapiens) - Core tools (old method) - chipping away to get the core of the rock - Flake tools - shape to the core, then hit to get the flakes of the rock; left with big pile of flakes - tools much finer, smaller, sharper - also used for trading - The Levallois technique is part of Mousterian Stone Tool Industry Concentration of bones of single species (like red deer and eland; also mature adults) and mousterian tools strongly suggest that neandertals were successful big-game hunters Neandertals buried their dead (france, 70,000 yrs old) - buried in a flex position; shows a social ritual/ cultural tradition; they had ideas about life after death (religious thinking); human emotions (mourning; idea related to modern humans) Neanderthal flute, slovenia, >43,000 yrs Neanderthal ornaments, Arcy-sur-cure, France, 55,000-33,000 yrs - Shows they were smart enough to have symbolic material culture Fire - first archaeological evidence of firemakers What happened to the neandertals? Two views:
- Interbred with modern H. sapiens (gene flow) - Became extinct (no gene flow) - Some genetic evidence
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