COR 013: 4th AT REVIEWER MODULE 16 -The web of social relationships -Humans form as part of a- smallest unit of society -relation between two or more person that is based on common ancestry or marriage -special contract of permanent union between a man and a woman entered into in accordance with law for the establishment of conjugal and family life -consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share at meals or living accommodation -may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people -links individuals based on their genetic relations -It allows an individual to identify another individual as a family member through blood relation -It is also known as kinship by consanguinityExamples: -Parents and their children and between children of same parents. 1 -family that traces its ancestry from the paternal or father's side. 2 -family that traces its ancestry from the maternal or mother's side. 3 -family that traces its ancestry from both paternal and maternal side. -When a person marries, he establishes relationship not only with the girl whom he marries but also with a number of other people in the girl's family. -Moreover, it is not only the person marrying who gets bound to the family members of the girl but his family members also get bound to the family members of the girl. 1. -Marriage in which there is only one wife and one husband at a time 2. -Any form of marriage in which a person may have more than one spouse at a time. -A form of marriage in which one woman may have more than one husband at a time. -A form of marriage in which a man may have more than one wife at a time -wherein the family unit consists of multiple husbands and multiple wives -it is a rule of marriage in which the life-partners are to be selected within the group and the group may be caste, class, tribe, race, village, religious group etc. -Interracial marriage (Asian and European; American and Asia) are good examples for endogamous marriages. -it is a rule of marriage in which an individual has to marry outside his own group. -It prohibits marrying within the group. -The so-called blood relatives shall neither have marital connections nor sexual contacts among themselves. -Traditional Chinese families prefer to have an exogamous marriage for their children, that is their sons to marry someone who also belongs to Chinese families.
-Is a privileged social relationship established byritual, such as that of Godparents or fraternalorders.-A very famous ritual kinship is the - used to refer to theinstitutional relationship between compadres. -are relationship between the parents and godparents of a child is an important bond that originates when a child is baptized in Iberian and Latin American families. -a family unit that consists of a single couple or monogamous family, that is - the husband, wife and their child or children. -a family unit that consists of the husband and wife with their children, and their relatives like in-law (grandparents, uncle, and aunty, cousins, , nice, nephews).-a family unit that consists of one or both parents who have a child or children from a previous relationship or past marriage, but they have combined to form a new family often after a death of a previous spouse, or marital separation, annulment, or divorce. -a family unit which is headed by one parent (either father or mother only) raising a child or children. -based on the nature or household residence -the son stays and the daughters leaves, so that the married couple lives with or near the husband's parents. -the daughter stays and the son leaves, so that themarried couple live or near the wife's parents.-either the son or the daughter leaves, so that the married couple lives with near either the wife's or the husband's parents. MODULE 18 -is any entity that involved in the political process -includes political parties, political institution, and political groups -it is engaged in political activities aimed at achieving clearly defined political goals, which improve the political system that benefits the interests of their members -according to Elman Service, a political anthropologist 1 -It is a least complex form of political organization, as it has neither a rigid form or governance nor a structured form of leadership -It is typically consisting of 20-50 individuals who are usually related to one another by virtue of kinship. -This society is chiefly based on forging which is also known as hunting and gathering. This economic system allows for greater mobility of the group as they follow animals and food sources. -Decision-making is often made by the entire group, with the eldest members acting as the facilitator -Every member of the group whether they have lesser capacity to hunt or gather has equal access to their basic needs such as food and water. 2 -A political organization that consists of segmentary lineages. -This type of kinship relation is marked by loyalty per family cluster or segment. -An individual's loyalty primarily lies on his or her immediate family, followed by his/her cousins, and then his or her distant cousins. -This type of kinship grouping allows for the creation of interdependent generations. -Their economic subsistence requires a degree of settlement. Most tribes are either horticultural (shifting agriculture) or pastoral (tending animals).
-The leaders that are chosen are individuals who are believed to possess special skills or aptitudes that relate to economic activity. -The leaders in a tribe have no concrete political power over their members, except in areas when group concerns are in place. 3 -political organization consists of a few local communities who subscribe to the power and rule of a leader who has absolute power on them. -This absolute power is derived from the perceived relation of the leader to supernatural forces and powers, which is a form oflegitimizing factor. -This political organization is also tied with horticulture and pastoralism. -The same economic process of redistributionthrough tribute collection is practiced in chiefdom just like in a tribe. -What distinguishes a chiefdom from a tribe is the existence of a social stratification that segregates society into the elite from thecommoner. -The elites are often the relatives of the ruler and are also believed to have divinity or connections to the supernatural. 4 -It is a group of people sharing similar cultureand political history, whereas the state is apolitical organization united by a common set of laws.-A state uses complete political coerciveness,which may come in the form of armed personnel, stricter laws, and the rigidgovernmental policies. -The primary form of economic subsistence is market exchange. Standardized currencies are used to exchange commodities, unlike in a band where a commodity or service is exchanged with another commodity or service, which are often deemed by both parties to be of similar value. -Social rules are implemented in the form of laws and citizens of the country as individuals are subjected to legal norms in the territory in which they belong. -From the Latin wordauctoritasmeaning influence/command -Right to exercise power given by the State or by academic knowledge of an area It is the legitimate power which one person or a group holds over another -From the Latin wordlegitimaremeaning lawful -Value whereby something or someone is recognized and accepted as right and proper. -It is understood as the popular acceptance and recognition by the public of the authority of a present administration -According to Max Weber, a 20th century sociologist -achieved by a leader through the process of following established codes and procedures governing the allocation and distribution of power and resources within a society. -leaders who are ruling under the power of this authority have been either elected or appointed to office following the existing laws of the land. -form of leadership legitimacy that highlights the right of leader to rule based on inheritance of the title. -People under the leadership of a ruler with traditional authority accept the ruler's exercise of power as it has been the existing social status since the time of their ancestors. -The rule of monarchs and their allies in both patrimonial and feudal regimes are examples of this. -form of leadership legitimacy that highlights the right of leader to rule based on inheritance of the title. -People under the leadership of a ruler with traditional authority accept the ruler's exercise of power as it has been the existing social status since the time of their ancestors. -The rule of monarchs and their allies in both patrimonial and feudal regimes are examples of this. MODULE 19 -from the Greek wordoikosmeaning house & nomosmeaning custom/law