Dr. S. Jiménez-Dietsch References: 1. A J. Detton Grant's Dissector Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2.A.M.R. Agur and A.F. Dalley Grant's Atlas of Anatomy Wolster Kluver 3. C.D. Clemente Anatomy Dissector Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 4. C.D. Clemente A Regional Atlas of the Human Body Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 5. F.H. Netter Atlas of Human Anatomy Saunders, Elsevier 6. K.L. Moore Clinically Oriented Anatomy Wolster Kluver 7. L.E. Wineski Snell's Clinical Anatomy byRegions Wolster Kluver 8.R.L. Drake, A.W. Vogl, A.W.M. Mitchell Gray's Anatomy for Students Saunders, Elsevier
BONES AND BONY FEATURES In aTYPICALVERTEBRA,identify: •Vertebral body oTwo adjacent vertebral bodies are united by a fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc; this is a joint of the symphysis variety. •Vertebral foramen oIn an articulated vertebral column, they collectively form thevertebral canal. •Vertebral arch = neural arch oPedicles oLaminae •Processes a.Transverse processes oLocated at the junction of the pedicle and lamina. oThey afford attachments to muscles. b.Spinous process oLocated at the junction of the two laminae. oThey afford attachments to muscles. c.Articular processes oThey are four:two superior and two inferior articular processes. oEach articular process has an articular facet. •Superior and inferior vertebral notch: located in the pedicles oWhen the vertebrae are articulated, they form the superior and inferior boundaries of the intervertebral foramina. In a TYPICALCERVICALVERTEBRA,identify: •Vertebral body: oSmall and broad from side to side. oIts superior surface ends at each side in an upturned, superior lip; hence, it is concave from side to side. oIts inferior surface ends anteriorly in a downward, inferior lip. ▪Comparison: The superior and inferior surfaces of thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies are flat. •Transverse process: oIt ends in two tubercles (anterior and posterior tubercles) with a gutter between them oIt contains a foramen transversarium The most distinctive feature of the cervical vertebrae is the presence of foramina transversaria for the passage of the vertebral artery and vein which ascends through the neck toward the foramen magnum.
•Spinous process: typically short and bifid(except C-7) ✓C-7 has the most prominent spinous process in the cervical region, hence its name, thevertebra prominens. ✓This spinous process is usually nonbifid. •Vertebral foramen oIt is large and triangular. In theATLAS,identify: 1. anterior and posterior arch •The anterior arch bears on its internal surface a facet for articulation with the odontoid process(dens)of the axis. •The posterior arch is much longer than the anterior one;in place of a spinous process it bears a smallposterior tubercle. 2. lateral masses •They bear thetransverse processand thesuperior and inferior articular processes. •Thesuperior articular facetsare concave for articulation with the occipital condyles •The transverse processes of the atlas are longer and heavier than those of the other cervical vertebrae, but like the latter contain foramina transversaria for transmission of the vertebral arteries. In the living,the transverse process of the atlas protrudes more laterally than do those of the other cervical vertebrae making it possible to be palpated below the mastoid process. In theAXIS,identify: 1. odontoid process(dens) •Is its most distinguishing feature. •Projects from the upper end of the body. •Lies posterior to the anterior arch of the atlas and articulates with it. 2. transverse process •Ends in a single tubercle,instead of bifurcating and ending in anterior and posterior tubercles. 3. spinous process •It is heavier and longer as compared with the succeeding cervical vertebrae. •It is bifid.Summary: Note that the atlas lacks a body and a spinous process.It consists of an anterior and a posterior arch,and lateral masses that bear the transverse processes and the articular processes.
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