Comparison between Walmart's Financial Statements Using GAAP and IFRS:
Walmart's financial statements would differ in various ways if IFRS were used instead of GAAP. Walmart
may show its balance sheet under IFRS without following the prescribed order required by GAAP due to
the presentation's flexibility (Nobes & Parker, 2016). The Last In, First Out (LIFO) inventory method is
permitted by GAAP but is not permitted by IFRS. The impact of this modification on Walmart's reported
cost of goods sold and profitability is uncertain (Zeff, 2012). While GAAP frequently requires that these
expenditures be expensed, IFRS permits capitalization of particular research and development costs that
satisfy certain requirements (Kieso, Weygandt, & Warfield, 2016). Additionally, while IFRS and GAAP have
worked to achieve similarity in revenue recognition, variances still exist and could affect Walmart's
Pros and Cons for Walmart Switching to IFRS from GAAP:
By switching to IFRS, Walmart might become compliant with international standards and make its
financial statements easier for investors throughout the world to understand. The operations and costs
may be streamlined as a result of this alignment. However, the change would necessitate expensive
system modifications, restatement of earlier financial accounts, and hefty training expenses. Given the
distinctions between IFRS and GAAP, tax ramifications could be another area of worry (Kieso et al.,
Legal or Ethical Challenges with Convergence in Egypt:
Given that Egypt adopted IFRS in 2011 for publicly traded companies, Walmart would likely comply with
local laws if it were to conduct business there. However, due to regional norms or political pressure,
Egypt's unique cultural, political, and economic environment may give rise to expectations to achieve
specific financial results (Said, 2015). For Walmart, this can lead to moral conundrums including
openness and observance of IFRS to the letter. Potential contradictions between IFRS standards and
Egyptian legislation may be difficult to resolve and need for extensive knowledge.
Conclusion: Even while Walmart's adoption of IFRS may seem advantageous for global integration, it is
not without challenges, particularly when taking into account markets like Egypt. For such
transformations, a thorough understanding and strategic preparation are essential (Nobes & Parker,
Nobes, C., & Parker, R. (2016). Comparative international accounting (13th ed.). Pearson.
Zeff, S. A. (2012). The Evolution of U.S. GAAP: The Political Forces Behind Professional Standards. The CPA
Journal, 82(1), 6-10.
Kieso, D. E., Weygandt, J. J., & Warfield, T. D. (2016). Intermediate Accounting (16th ed.). Wiley.
Said, R. (2015). Corporate governance in Egypt: the effects of ownership, board structure and the
institutional environment. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 15(1),