INCIDENT SAFETY OFFICER 3RD EDITION FREQUENTLY TESTED EXAM QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS What is the FDSOA? - ANS Fire Department Safety Officer Association The safety officer role was split into two titles and courses in 1991. What are these called? - ANS Health and Safety Officer (HSO) Incident Safety Officer (ISO) What NFPA number is for Fire Department Safety Officer? - HSO qualifications is included in this NFPA - ISO qualifications for fire department ISOs is included in this NFPA - ANS NFPA 1521 Health and Safety Officer - ANS the individual assigned and authorized by the fire chief as the manager of the health and safety program Incident Safety Officer - ANS a member of the command staff responsible for monitoring and assessing safety hazards or unsafe situations and for developing measures to ensure personnel safety What was NIMS developed through? - ANS Developed through Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5) What is NFPA 1561? - ANS Standard on Emergency Service Incident Management System and Command Safety Has ISO requirements, duties, and responsibilties What is a "wall watcher" from the late 1800s and early 1900s? - ANS "Fire fighters" who stood at the corners of buildings and watched the walls for signs of sagging or bowing during a working fire In 1970, congress passed the Williams-Steiger Act which created this organization _______________. This was signed into law by Nixon that December. - ANS Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) What is NPFA 1500 that was established in 1987? - ANS Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program. Has HSO requirements, duties, and responsibilities
What is NFPA 1501? - ANS Standard for Fire Department Safety Officer- this addresses the authority, qualifications, and responsibilities of the safety officer. What does FIRESCOPE stand for that was established in the 1970s? - ANS Firefighting Resources of Southern California Organized for Potential Emergencies In the NWCG (National Wildfire Coordinating Group) NIIMS (National Interagency Incident Command System), the safety officer can be classified as one of the following: - ANS Type I Safety Officer (SOF1) Type II Safety Officer (SOF2) Line Safety Officer (SOFR) This NWCG NIIMS safety officer is qualified to deploy nationwide as part of a national incident management team - ANS Type I Safety Officer (SOF1) This NWCG NIIMS safety officer is usually qualified at the state or local level to function at wildland and interface fires or other disasters - ANS Type II Safety Officer (SOF2) This NWCG NIIMS safety officer can be the safety officer assigned to initial attack operations - ANS Line Safety Officer (SOFR) There are approximately ______ Type 1 IMTs and _______ Type 2 IMTs staged around the US - ANS 16; 32 The ___________ is responsible for assigning the Type 1 and Type 2 IMTs. - ANS National Interagency Coordination Center (NICC) What does NFPA 1026 include? - ANS ISO qualifications for NIMS safety officers What is the most common LODD related to? - ANS Overexertion causing a cardiac event What is the most common firefighter injury? - ANS Strains/Sprains/ muscle pain; followed by thermal burns MEDIC mnemonic stands for: - ANS Monitor environment and activities Evaluate hazard potentials Develop preventative measures Intervene when a threat exists Communicate urgent and advisory messages Who is responsible for the safety of all working on an incident? - ANS The incident commander P 17 What are the components of the Operational Safety Triad? - ANS - procedures
- equipment - personnel P. 17 A _____________________ is defined in writing and can take on many forms: standard operating procedures (SOPs), standard operating guidelines (SOGs), department directives, temporary memorandums, and the like. - ANS formal processes P. 17 Many departments around the country use SOGs instead of SOPs...why? - ANS They are more flexible for line officers and incident commanders P. 17 _________________ are strict directives that must be followed with little flexibility. _______________ are adaptable templates that allow flexibility in application. - ANS Procedures; Guidelines P. 17 A process or operation that is part of a department's routine but is not written down. - ANS Informal process P.20 _________________ is the least important factor in the operational triad of procedures, equipment, and personnel. - ANS Equipment P. 21 What does TPP mean? - ANS Thermal Protective Performance for PPE P.22 What three factors make up the personnel leg of the safety triad? - ANS training, health, and attitude P. 68 Building Era from 1700's to WWI? - ANS Founder's era P. 68 Building era from WWI to WWI? - Has Balloon Framing - ANS Industrial Era P. 68 Building era from WWII to roughly 1980? - Has platform framing - ANS Legacy Era P. 68
Building Era from 1980s to Present? - ANS Lightweight Era P. 126 The number one cause of injuries is: - ANS overexertion P. 126 Work Hardening - ANS Efforts to improve an individual's strength, flexibility, and aerobics to help prevent overexertion at incidents P. 127 Ergonomic Stress equation - ANS Physical Setting + Worker Relationship to setting + Task requirements = Ergonomic Stress P. 128 Physical temperatures outside of _________ or _________ will start to affect physical performance. - ANS 101F; 96F P. 129 Studies have shown that firefighters core temperature averages over _________ while wearing PPE after 20 minutes (one SCBA bottle) of activity. - ANS 101.5F P. 130 Active cooling is best achieved with _____________. - ANS -forearm submersion - cold wet towels on the face and neck P.131 The cell needs three things: - ANS - Oxygen - Water - Fuel P. 132 What leads the list of contaminants that can interfere with oxygen intake? (Two answers) - ANS - Carbon monoxide - Hydrogen Cyanide P. 132 Firefighters wearing PPE engaged in strenuous activity can sweat out over a ______________ of water per hour. - ANS Quart P. 132 Sweating causes the need to replace these two essential electrolytes? - ANS - Sodium - Potassium High and Low Glycemic Foods - ANS Banana- High
Apples- Low P. 135 What NFPA addresses Rehab? - ANS NFPA 1584 P. 135 What NFPA addresses who evaluates Rehab and makes sure it is established by coordinating it with the IC? It ultimately falls on the IC though. - ANS NFPA 1561- the ISO P. 135 In NFPA 1584, Who must make sure Rehab is established? - ANS The IC P. 136 What are the 5 components of Rehab is order of priority? - ANS R- Rest E- Energy/ Nutrition H- Hydration A- Accommodation for weather B- BLS monitoring and care P. 136 What is the 10/20 rule? - ANS After your first SCBA bottle use- 10 minutes rest After each subsequent bottle- 20 minutes rest P. 138 What are some benchmarks to allow a firefighter to return to activity from rehab? - ANS - 20 minutes of rest - Pulse rate lower than 120 BPM - Body Temperature lower than 100.5F - Diastolic BP lower than 90 - Systolic BP lower than 130 P. 138 True/ False: NFPA 1584 requires that a team or crew that has lost one of its members to injury or death be released from the incident and returned to quarters. - ANS True P. 143 What are the NIOSH 5, five factors that cause LODDs, civilian losses, near misses, and significant injuries? - ANS Improper/ Inadequate 1. Risk Assessment 2. Incident Command 3. Accountability 4. Communications 5. SOGs or improperly followed SOGs
P. 143 What are the three operational levels on the fire ground? - ANS Strategic- 50 ft or greater away Tactical- 6-50 ft Task- 0-6 ft P. 147 Safety Officer should wear a vest, specifically of a different color. What color is usually associated with safety? - ANS Green P.148 Soft Intervention - ANS Active communication in awareness or suggestions that cause crews to modify their actions to prevent injury P.148 Firm Intervention - ANS direct order to immediately stop something that is an immediate threat P. 157 National Incident Typing Scheme - ANS Type 5: Local with no general staff positions Type 4: Local with general staff positions Type 3: Regional event Type 2: Multiregional, State, or Initial Federal Type I: Federal P. 163 The ISO role can be viewed as both: - ANS Reactive and Proactive P. 163 The two most common approaches to ISO duties include the use of: - ANS - checklists - action models P. 164 Action model - ANS a template that outlines a mental or physical process that considers inputs that lead to an output or outcomes P. 165 The Dodson/ Vavra ISO actional model has four components that are cyclical: - ANS - Resources - Recon - Risk - Report These are cyclical looking at the conditions, activities, operations, or probabilities of each P. 167 The ISO arrival process gets the ISO dialed in, what are the steps: - ANS 1. Confirm the ISO assignment
2. Collect Information 3. Confirm communication links 4. Don appropriate PPE and position identifier P. 163 What does Sitstat and Restat mean? - ANS - Situation Status - Resource Status P. 169 Offensive and Defensive mode declaration are: - ANS Strategic approaches to an incident P. 169 Freelancing - ANS 1. the act of working outside the parameters of an IAP 2. an individual performing incident functions out of the sight or voice range of others P. 171 No entry zone - ANS Nobody is allowed to enter this zone- Red with white chevron P. 171 Hot zone - ANS Areas judged to be IDLH yet can be entered- Solid Red P. 171 Warm Zone - ANS Area supporting the hot zone or action area where personnel, equipment, hoselines, and apparatus are operating in support of an incident Decontamination and RIC standby Solid Yellow P. 171 Cold Zone - ANS Surrounding a warm zone used for incident command post, support agency interface, rehab, and staging PPE is rarely needed or required Solid Green P. 176 Read 3 - ANS 1. Read the smoke 2. Read the building 3. Read hazardous energy P. 176 Risk Taking Formula: - ANS Principal Hazards +/- Integrity + Other Hazards +/- Resource Effectiveness = Risk Taking P. 177 Hostile Fire Events - ANS 1. Flashover- turbulent smoke fills a box 2. Backdraft- closed box with signs of extreme heat
3. Explosive Growth- ventilation limited fire with a developing air track P. 177 Roof styles: - ANS tied-arch bowstring truss exposed lightweight steel/ combination trusses P. 179 NFPA summarizes that ________ persons are needed for a simple low-hazard single family dwelling fire. - ANS 14 Staffing Guidelines for Initial Fireground Operations - ANS see figure P. 180 What is the number one fire ground injury? - ANS Sprains and Strains P. 181 High Rescue Profile - ANS Spaces within a building where a victim would be in danger of harm but the likelihood of survival is good. - Clear Windows above or near fire - Minimal smoke stained windows and can still see interior blinds - Condensation of windows (<160F) is still survivable - Smoke thermal balance (smoke on top; clear on bottom) P. 181 Marginal Rescue Profile - ANS Areas look bad, but there is still a chance of a survivable victim - Fast, thick, dark smoke leaving a space but not turbulent and not totally filled the space - Intact dark stained windows with no heat stress cracks - Spaces that have collapsed but no fire involved P. 182 Zero Rescue Profile - ANS Simply not survivable - turbulent dense black smoke filled a space - Stained windows with heat stress cracks - Floor level temps of 300F (humans last until 149F) - areas that are collapsed and on fire P. 182 To be truly effective, a PAR should include: - ANS - confirmation of assignment - location - number of people in each assignment P. 183
Some fire departments conduct a PAR every _______ while working in a IDLH environment. - ANS 15 minutes P. 184 OSHA requires a minimum of __________________ to serve as a RIC. - ANS two trained and equipped personnel P. 186 The number one tactical priority in buildings with central halls or stairways is: - ANS controlling smoke and heat P. 187 What are two extremely bad gases of inhalation from a fire? - ANS Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Cyanide P. 193 I-zone Fire - ANS wildland-urban interface applying to areas where homes and businesses have minimal separation from, or are interspersed with natural growing wildland vegetation P. 193 Control line - ANS all-inclusive term for all constructed or natural barriers and treated fire edges used to control a wildland fire P. 193 Fire Line - ANS part of a control line that is scraped or dug to mineral soil P. 193 Scratch line - ANS a preliminary control line hastily constructed as an emergency measure to check fire spread P. 193 Wet line - ANS is water or a water agent sprayed on the ground as a temporary control line from which to ignite or stop a low-intensity fire P. 194 In wildland FF, what is a direct and indirect attack? - ANS Direct- wet stuff on the red stuff Indirect- Putting a fire line in that the fire cannot burn past P. 194 Name some factors of topography - ANS Slope- Degree of land mass Aspect- Relationship to the Sun Chimney- narrow canyon Saddle- valley coming off a hill
P. 194 Wildland Blow up (also called Aerial or Crown Fire) - ANS sudden increase in fire intensity due to wind, prewarmed fuels, or topography P. 194 Wildland Firestorm - ANS A violent convection column caused by a large continuous area of intense fire P. 194 Wildland Flare Up - ANS Sudden but short-lived rise in rate of spread or fire intensity usually attributed to wind, fuel, or topographical changes. Flaring proceeds a blowup. P. 195 Wildland Torching (also called Candling) - ANS Burning of foliage of a single tree or small bunch of trees from the bottom up P. 196 Wildland Snags - ANS Burned-out trees and dead limbs P. 196 Wildland How many personnel should you have for each? Vehicle Based Attack- Boots on the Ground- Hike In- Structural Protection Crew- Water Shuttle Operation- - ANS Vehicle Based Attack- 2 in vehicle Boots on the Ground- 3 person crew (includes leader) Hike In- 5 person crew (includes leader) Structural Protection Crew- 4 person crew Water Shuttle Operation- 5 person support team plus driver/ operators P. 197 Wildland LCES acronym meaning - ANS Lookouts Communication methods Escape Routes Safety zones P. 198 What is the leading traffic concern at wildland incidents? - ANS Smoke obscuration P. 204 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.95 - ANS Occupational Noise Exposure Limits P. 204 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120 - ANS Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Solutions
P. 204 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 - ANS Respiratory Protection P. 204 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146 - ANS Permit-Required Confined Spaces P. 204 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1030 - ANS Blood-Borne Pathogens P. 204 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200 - ANS Hazard Communication NFPA 472 - ANS Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Material Incidents P. 205 The ASO-HM (Assistant Safety Officer- Hazmat) should have what level of Hazmat certification? - ANS Technician Level P. 206 TECHREF - ANS Technical Reference Specialist P. 209 Two issues apply to control zones at the hazmat incident: - ANS -language -appropriate PPE P. 209 Control zones at a HAZMAT incident include: - ANS - Escape Area for Hot Zone - Contaminated Safe Refuse Area - Decontamination Corridor - Contamination reduction zone - Zone gateways P. 210 Hazmat Medical monitoring needs to be completed ___________ - ANS prior to technician stabilization efforts to establish a baseline and after they come out of the hot zone P. 210 Hazmat The best hazard mitigation approach in dealing with sanitation issues is - ANS separation P. 210 The need for documentation and the development of written safety briefings and site safety plans is ________________ for technician-level hazmat incidents. - ANS mandatory
P. 212 Once an incident has been classified as a suspected terrorist event involving a WMD, who takes over? - ANS FBI P. 217 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1926 - ANS Excavations, Trenching Operations P. 217 The assignment of an ISO is _____________ for confined space, trench, and hazmat incidents. - ANS mandatory NFPA 1670 - ANS Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents NFPA 1006 - ANS Standard for Technical Rescuer Professional Qualifications P. 219 ASO-RT - ANS Assistant Safety Officer- Rescue Technician P. 219 On-deck system - ANS an organized system in which a working team is replaced with another working team that is already dialed in and ready to replace them. Once replaced, the rotated workers go to rehab, and the rehab team goes into the on-deck position P. 220 Helicopters need how much space to land? - ANS 100 FT with nothing over 12" high P. 220 What is the safety zone for helicopters? - ANS 300 ft P. 221 Building Collapse Classifications Basic Light Moderate Heavy - ANS Basic- Victims easily assessible and trapped by surface debris Light- light-frame partition collapse Moderate- Ordinary construction collapse, victims may be trapped by load bearing members. Watch out for secondary collapse Heavy- Stressed concrete, reinforced concrete, and steel girders are impeding access. P. 222 What color paint does USAR use to mark? - ANS Orange paint
P. 226 The number one safety concern at roadway incidents is - ANS being struck by other traffic P. 227 Traffic Barrier - ANS an object that can absorb the impact of a secondary crash to protect rescuers (like a fire truck) P. 227 Traffic Calming Strategy - ANS efforts to slow down approaching traffic using cones, lights, or flare P. 227 Subway incidents can be the - ANS most challenging with confined space, hazardous material, industrial entrapment, and structural collapse P. 237 Discretionary function - ANS recognizes that certain activities require a value judgement among competing goals and priorities P 238 ISO investigative model with a 3 step approach is: - ANS Information Collection Analysis and Reconstruction Recommendations P. 241 Atypical Stressful Event - ANS an incident that presents mental or emotional pressure or strain circumstances that are outside the ordinary experience of the responders P. 241 Acute Stress Disorder - ANS behavioral issues that arise in the days following an ASE P. 241 Post-traumatic stress disorder - ANS a mental health disorder that can develop in individuals who have experienced a terrifying ordeal P.250 Drills Coaching - ANS places the trainee in the hot seat to perform ISO functions P. 250 Who will take the lead in a multi agency drill? - ANS The fire department's emergency manager P. 255
It is ideal to have ____ instructor to _____ students for live fire training events. You can go up to a ratio of ________ - ANS 1, 3, 1:5 P. 259 Fire Control Team - ANS has a min. of 2 qualified FF, one must be the ignition officer, the other is a ready observer P. 259 Safety Team - ANS -SO - experienced interior standby team (officer, nozzle person, and door control person) - outside building monitor - fuel shut off officer - ignition officer
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